Jim Remsen

AUTHOR AND FREELANCE EDITOR


Plot Summary:

- The year is 1790. A true-life Indian leader known as Queen Esther returns under cover to Teaoga, the site of her burned village. It is overrun with white settlers. Esther, honored by her people but hunted by the settlers as a killer, has come to secretly observe a U.S.-Iroquois peace council. While there, she stealthily provides a circle of Indian women with her lessons of survival and mentors a troubled native girl in the ways of leadership.

- Moving ahead to the present day, a girl named Maddy visits the same place, now an out-of-the-way hamlet on the New York-Pennsylvania border, on a summer trip. Reserved yet curious, she grows fascinated with Teaoga’s lost world and its inhabitants, chief among them the mysterious Esther. Encounters with the locals, including a colorful historian and two extraordinary boys, send Maddy headlong into exploring this crossroads of civilizations. As the parallel stories unfold, sparks begin flying across the centuries. Increasingly, Maddy’s journey into history becomes a journey of self-discovery. By the end, she has taken on Esther’s mantle of the “peace woman” and sets out to heal a hurt she has caused back home in Texas.

Visions of Teaoga is part supernatural page-turner, part detailed history textbook. As Jim Remsen says, "While I certainly want the book to be engaging and fun, my underlying purpose is to have kids confront this lost world and appreciate the little-taught, often surprising ways so many of the native cultures came undone. The Teaoga locale is a perfect microcosm of that important multicultural history, but there are similar examples everywhere. It’s all part of our nation's rich local history, glowing underfoot wherever you live, waiting to be explored."

Author's Note and Acknowledgments

While I suppose I’ve always believed in the past’s continual presence, it took a road trip to the four corners of Pennsylvania, my native state, a few years ago to drive that home. After visiting some of the better-known historical sites and soaking up their stories, I headed north up the Susquehanna River. The string of vintage Sullivan Trail plaques soon grabbed my attention. I followed them from Wilkes-Barre to Athens. On the way into Athens, I stumbled on the Esther monument. Like Maddy, I wondered who was this Indian queen, who was Hartley, what was a watch town. Most of all, I wondered why I hadn’t learned about all this before. It rankled because I was raised only an hour downriver from Athens--and never in my boyhood had this gripping local history been taught to us in school!

Athens is blessed to have its Tioga Point Museum, where the staff was happy to answer my impatient questions. In its reading room and in my walks around town, I began to lock on to the sagas of Teedyuscung, Esther, the Moravians, the Bloody Rock, the War of the Vegetables, and more. Such a cavalcade of drama – the Yankee-Pennamite Wars, the dream of a breakaway state with little Athens as the capital, Stephen Foster, Camptown, the French Azilum – just waiting to be brought into the classroom. I was the sort of boy, serious of purpose like the novel’s Curtis T, who would have been enraptured by this knowledge. I’d have wanted to know all the details, good and bad, and would have eagerly taught them to anyone else who would listen. In other words, I would have owned it as my special history. Above all (teachers, take note), it would have brought out my best as a budding learner. And if all that was so for me, why not others? Wouldn’t students everywhere benefit from drilling down into their local history?

Obviously, I think the answer is yes. To prove my point, I decided to tell the saga of Teaoga, seeing it as a terrific example of the rich material that’s out there waiting to be explored. Teaoga, being on the very fault line of 18th century upheavals, perfectly encapsulated that crucial era of Eastern woodlands history. And Esther, having lived and suffered through the upheavals, seemed an ideal narrator. To thicken the plot, inject some fun, and push the young reader to self-reflect, I also decided to add a cast of modern-day fictional characters led by the intrepid Maddy Winter.

Even though Visions of Teaoga was to be a work of historical fiction, I had to be well-grounded in fact. Being a journalist and serious history buff, I knew to turn first to the trained professionals ¬ the scholars who have carefully chronicled life in the Eastern borderlands during the 1700s, and particularly the ruinous changes to settler-Indian affairs. In preparation for writing Visions of Teaoga, I read 78 books, articles, essays, transcriptions, memoirs, and research papers that delve into aspects of the era (my bibliography appears among the resources at right). I also spent time in and around Athens and Wilkes-Barre, visited local history societies, interviewed a variety of historians and storytellers, and conducted my own direct research, primarily at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the American Philosophical Society, the Library Company of Pennsylvania, and the National Museum of the American Indian.

Anyone studying early America comes face to face with how spotty the historical record can be, especially when dealing with the Indian world. Since the Iroquois and related tribes did not keep written histories at that time, we are generally dependent on the chronicles of Europeans. Unfortunately, those accounts were frequently slanted, ill-informed, or simply sketchy. And while prominent leaders such as Red Jacket and Teedyuscung got adequate mention in the official records, lesser-known ones like our Esther & Eghohowin remained on the margins. All too often, this has resulted in a grabbing at straws, in conjecture and rumor sometimes hardening into accepted truth, and in lore too often substituting for proven fact. Over the years, unsubstantiated and contradictory stories took hold about E & E’s backgrounds, actions, whereabouts, and even deaths. During the Revolutionary War years, as race hatred was growing, depicting Esther as the bloodthirsty “Fiend of Wyoming” may have served a propaganda purpose for settlers, but her exact role in the atrocity is actually far from clear.

Similar is the depiction of Esther as a daughter of the famous Montour clan. This is a common belief, that her mother was one of the mixed-blood Montour matriarchs. In my research, I encountered five different, conflicting lineages given for Esther -- an amusing but maddening situation. Finally I decided to accept the version pieced together by an archivist for the New York state archives named James Fouts. When I told him about my project, Mr. Fouts’ immediate reply was, “Whatever you do, don’t make her a Montour!” I read his fine paper on E & E and found it persuasive. His key piece of documentary evidence was a Moravian diary entry recounting a visit to Wyalusing by Eghohowin and his mother-in-law. The Moravians, who kept scrupulous records, identified the mother-in-law – Esther’s mother -- as a Shawnee. This destroys the popular account that Esther was a daughter of the famous “French Margaret” Montour. To double-check, I had Mr. Fouts’ translation of the Moravian entry confirmed by an expert in the Old German in which it was written.

All that said, my main characters’ obscurity in the historical record certainly provided a freedom of interpretation as I tried to connect the dots about them. Plus, it was instructive. Historians toil in darkness as a matter of course, and experiencing it up close gave me a new appreciation for their diligence and discipline.

Chasing E & E meant spending hours upon days in the stacks and reading rooms of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania and other eminent institutions. While all of this time was fruitful, allow me to recount three moments that particularly thrilled my novice eyes. One involved Eghohowin. I’d tracked down and pored over every reference to him I could find. Few offered much detail or personality. Finally a magnificent one, and one I’d not seen cited elsewhere, emerged from the bound Minutes of the Provincial Council from October 1758. There on a brittle page was Eghohowin’s demand to the New Jersey governor – essentially an “I Have a Dream” speech -- that “your people may not look on the wild beasts of the forests or fish of the waters as their sole property, but that we may be admitted to an equal use of them.” The war chief had it in him to be an orator. You’ll find his full speech recited, verbatim, by Queen Esther in Chapter 19. A photo of the bound page is also posted in the resources section.

The two other delights occurred in the microfilm library at Villanova University. One was viewing the handwritten text of Timothy Pickering’s entire condolence speech to the Seneca mourners. I’d read excerpts of the eulogy elsewhere, and was stunned to see for the first time the eloquent section that includes Pickering’s imagery about “the tender shooting corn nipped by untimely frosts.” While others had omitted the passage, I am happy to include it – and Pickering’s address in full -- in Chapter 13, as an example of the man’s attempt to honor native dignity.

And then there was the turn of the microfiche wheel to reveal a letter written in an elegant cursive hand, dated Dec. 31, 1790. Addressed to Pickering “relative to your transactions with the Seneka Indians in November last,” it assures “my entire Approbation of your conduct in this business.” The signature, in giant lettering, is from “Your most Obed. Serv., George Washington.” It’s posted among the resources here for you to enjoy.

These are the sorts of discoveries that make a researcher’s day. I wish them on anyone else who jumps in and tries some historical research. Expect your heart to flutter.

With Gratitude

It takes a village to raise a book, certainly a book like this. First of all, I owe boundless thanks to the dozens of authors and scholars whose writings lit my way.

In addition, I offer deep gratitude to a host of people who personally nurtured me.

From day one, genealogist Michael Ramage was a generous guide to the trove of basic documents online and physical. Historian Alison Hirsch also offered instructive insights as I set out on my research. At the Tioga Point Museum, director Valerie Jacoski was of immeasurable help, answering my swarm of questions about Athens then, showing me Athens today, and being an encouraging and insightful reader. Her successor at the museum, Margaret Boritz, also has been a learned and encouraging presence. Deb Twigg and Dick Cowles of the Susquehanna River Archeological Center of Native American Studies deepened my understanding of regional history and lore, as did retired archeologist Dick McCracken of Towanda. Stephen Killian, a historian of the Battle of Wyoming, was a terrific personal guide to both the sights and the context of that fateful conflict. Edward Quinter’s able translation of the Moravians’ Old German script was important and timely. Michael Placentra spun my hand-drawn map into a polished product, as did Sam Zolten and James Rowland with my book video.

Manuscript readers Dr. Jennifer Ekert, Val Jacoski, Margaret Borick, Susie Lada, Paulina Lipman, Simon Williams, and Larissa Carroll helped to sharpen by prose and clarify my thinking. Editor Janice Rhayem set me straight more than once. Carol Malkin, Dr. Peter Goldenthal, Judy Petsonk and Barbara Kaplan provided wise counsel about today’s publishing world and other matters.

And throughout, my beloved wife Harriet helped to quiet my snarklies and stay on an even keel. Let’s keep making history together, dear.


LINKS TO RELATED WEBSITES

Track Sullivan's March against the Iroquois:
http:/​/​sullivanclinton.com/​

Visit a central locale of the plot:
http:/​/​www.tiogapointmuseum.com/​

Experience Native America before European colonization:
https:/​/​www.youtube.com/​watch?v=7FItlStGMY4

See historical markers, get lesson plans:
http:/​/​explorepahistory.com/​

Learn about Pennsylvania Indians, with a focus on Delaware leader Teedyuscung:
http:/​/​explorepahistory.com/​story.php?storyId=1-9-14

Acquaint yourself with the Lenape revival:
http:/​/​www.lenapenation.org/​main.html

The Cayuga, once Teaoga's rulers, remain vibrant:
http:/​/​www.bigorrin.org/​cayuga_kids.htm

Visions of Teaoga

Jim's multicultural saga for Middle Grade readers (ages 10-14) has been released by Sunbury Press in paperback and e-book form. To place an order, click on the Visions of Teaoga link to the right.

Titled Visions of Teaoga, the historical novel has its readers sitting in on an Indian storytelling circle centuries ago, and joining a girl today who visits the same spot - and hears the whispers of its powerful history. A plot summary appears in the left column, followed by the author's note and acknowledgments.

Resource Materials

To help bring Visions of Teaoga to life, and to enhance its value for classrooms and book groups, the website is featuring a variety of supplemental materials. Scroll down to find historic documents, maps, journals, a list of recommended reading for further research, and more. Click on the images for expanded views.

(Also, you're invited to subscribe to the website blog, which has fresh material about native culture and frontier history. Open the Blog tab above to learn more.)


The tense U.S.-Iroquois council at Teaoga in 1790, the focal event of the book, warranted this actual letter of thanks from President Washington to his negotiator.



Here is a page from negotiator Timothy Pickering's journal that records his heartfelt eulogy to the two Seneca families whose sons had been murdered by trappers. That 1790 incident that prompted the emergency council at Teaoga. The full eulogy appears in Visions of Teaoga.



The Pennsylvania Provincial Council recorded the plea that Queen Esther's husband, the war chief Eghohowin, made to the New Jersey governor in 1758 for shared use of the land. Eghohowin implored him that "your people may not look on the wild beasts of the forests or the fish of the waters as their sole property, but that we may be admitted to an equal use of them." It's referred to in Chapter 19 of Visions of Teaoga.


For centuries, Pennsylvania was crisscrossed with trails that strategically connected villages, rivers and hunting lands used by the many native groups that had a claim on the region. Note the Sheshequin Path, the Forbidden Path and other key trails that traversed Queen Esther's world. The map below also identifies her town, her husband's Chemung war town, and the site of the Tutelo settlement that plays a role in Visions of Teaoga And to the west you see Pine Creek, where the two Senecas were murdered by drunken whites.


This is a detail of a map from Indian Paths of Pennsylvania, a fine resource by Paul A.W. Wallace, published by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission in 1998.


Below is a detail of a map chronicling the settlement of Pennsylvania based on land relinquishment by Indian groups over the decades. This shows Northeastern Pennsylvania, with the final, 1784 acquisition -- known as the Final Purchase -- shown in yellow. This purchase is central to the dramatic actions in Visions of Teaoga.


From "Geneological Map of the Counties," issued by the state Historical and Museum Commission. Teaoga was on the far eastern border of the Final Purchase of 1784.


QUESTIONS FOR CLASSROOM OR GROUP DISCUSSION

1. What are two or three new things the book taught you about Indians? About settlers?

2. In Chapter 3, Sisketung feels caught between world views “clashing like flintstones.” Do you think the natives and the Europeans were fated to clash? Why or why not?

3. What were some ways Pickering reflected his people’s viewpoint? Were there ways he did not?

4. In Chapter 4, Mrs. T tells Maddy how many Indians regarded the woods with anxiety, as a place of wood sprites and troubling spirits. Did that surprise you? Can you relate to it?

5. In Chapter 7, Maddy feels she’s observing things from afar as though she’s on a helicopter. Have you ever had that feeling?

6. The Indians cherished oral history and storytelling skills. Try that skill by having one person carefully read aloud several paragraphs from the book. Assign one listener to memorize the first half on the spot, another, the second half. Then, have them recite their parts back to the group as exactly they can. Discuss the experience.

7. In Chapter 14, Mrs. T’s study group imagines students debating whether Indians “were wasting the land by not developing it.” Hold that very debate yourselves, dividing your group into pro, con and judges.

8. In Chapter 20, Maddy offers a gift “to the rivers, which bore such changes.” What is the significance of waterways to this period of history?

9. What are some of the values and emotions that wampum carry? Do our modern cultures have anything similar?

10. Discuss the actions of Eghohowin. What does he embody? Is he a sympathetic character or not?

11. The author presents Queen Esther as a tragic figure trapped by circumstance. Do you agree?

12. Who was your favorite character, and why?

13. As Maddy discovered, seemingly ordinary Athens has a remarkable past. Does your area have a hidden history? Consider visiting your local history society, or go online, to research place names, heroes, scoundrels and other colorful chapters of the past. Focus on the historiography, on who told the stories and how complete and balanced they were.


BOOKS RECOMMENDED FOR YOUNG READERS

The following are high-quality historical novels about settler-Indian relations:

The Indians of New Jersey: Dickon Among the Lenapes, by M.R. Harrington. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Unversity, 1963.)

The Light in the Forest, by Conrad Richter. New York: Bantam, 1953.)

Sign of the Beaver, by Elizabeth George Speare. (New York: Dell, 1983.)

Calico Captive, by Elizabeth George Speare. (Houghton Mifflin, 2001.)

Rolling Thunder in the Mountains, Scott O’Dell. (New York: Yearling, 1993.)

Indian Captive: The Story of Mary Jemison, by Lois Lenski. (New York: HarperCollins, 1941, renewed 1969.)

Moon of Two Dark Horses, by Sally M. Keehn. (New York: Puffin, 2002.)


BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SOURCES CONSULTED

The books, pamphlets and papers below were utilized in the writing of Visions of Teaoga:

Allem, Frederick, editor. The Timothy Pickering Papers. (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1966.)

Banner, Stuart. How the Indians Lost Their Land: Law and Power on the Frontier. (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 2005.)

Boyd, Julian P., editor. The Susquehanna Company Papers, Volume III. (Wilkes-Barre, Pa.: Wyoming County Historical and Geological Society, 1931.)

Bradsby, Henry C., editor. History of Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. (Chicago: S. B. Nelson, 1893.)

Calloway, Colin G. The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.)

Cowles, Dick. “What Happened Before Sullivan Marched?” article in SRAC Journal. (Waverly, N.Y.: Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies, June 2007.)

Cowles, Dick. Why Sullivan Marched. (Waverly, N.Y.: Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies, undated.)

Cowles, Ellsworth. The Sullivan Campaign. (Corning Leader articles, 1978-79, reprinted by Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies, Waverly, N.Y.)

Cowles, Ellsworth. “Horses on the Moon: The Forbidden Path, Achsinessink and Chimney Rocks.” (1985 presentation to Corning-Painted Post Historical Society, reprinted by Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies, Waverly, N.Y.)

Craft, Rev. David. History of Bradford County 1770 – 1878. (Philadelphia: L. H. Everts & Co., 1878.)

Cruikshank, Ernest. The Story of Butler’s Rangers and the Settlement of Niagara. (Welland, Ontario: Tribune Printing, 1893.)

Day, Sherman. Historical Collections of the State of Pennsylvania. (Philadelphia: George W. Gorton, 1843.)

Donehoo, George P. A History of the Indian Villages and Place Names in Pennsylvania. (Lewisburg, Pa.: Wennawoods Publishing, 1999.)

Eckert, Allan W. The Wilderness War. (Boston: Little, Brown, 1978, reprinted by the Jesse Stuart Foundation, Ashland, Ky., 2003.)

Egle, William Henry. An Illustrated History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Civil, Political and Military, From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. (Harrisburg, Pa.: De Witt C. Goodrich & Co., 1876.)

Faull, Katherine M., editor. Moravian Women's Memoirs: Their Related Lives, 1750-1820. (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1997.)

Folts, James D. “The Montours: A Metis Family of Colonial and Revolutionary New York.” (Unpublished paper, 2007.)

Griffin, Patrick. American Leviathan: Empire, Nation and Revolutionary Frontier. (New York: Hill and Wang, 2007.)

Grumet, Robert S., editor. Journey on the Forbidden Path: Chronicles of a Diplomatic Mission to the Allegheny Country, March-September, 1760. (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1999.)

Hagan, William T. Longhouse Diplomacy and Frontier Warfare. (New York: New York State Bicentennial Commission, 1976.)

Hamilton, Kenneth G. “Cultural Contributions of Moravian Missions Among the Indians,” article in Pennsylvania History, vol. 18. (Mansfield, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historical Association, January, 1951.)

Hanna, Charles A. The Wilderness Trail, or the Ventures and Adventures of the Pennsylvania Traders on the Allegheny Path. (New York: G.P. Putnam, 1911.)

Harrington, M.R. The Indians of New Jersey: Dickon Among the Lenapes. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University, 1963.)

Harvey, Oscar Jewell. A History Of Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania: From Its First Beginnings To The Present Time, Including Chapters Of Newly-Discovered Early Wyoming Valley History, Together With Many Biographical Sketches And Much Genealogical Material. (Wilkes-Barre, Pa.: Raeder Press, 1909.)

Hayden, Horace E., compiler. The Massacre of Wyoming: The Acts of Congress for the Defense of the Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania, 1776-1778, With the Petitions of the Sufferers by the Massacre of July 3, 1778, for Congressional Aid. (Wilkes-Barre, Pa.: Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, 1895.)

Heckewelder, John. History, Manners, and Customs of the Indian Nations Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania and the Neighboring States, 1819. (Whitefish, Mont.: Kessinger Publishing, 2005.)

Heverly, Clement F. History and Geography of Bradford County, Pa., 1615-1924. (Towanda, Pa.: Bradford County Historical Society, 1926.)

Heverly, Clement. History of Sheshequin, 1777-1902. (Towanda, Pa. : The Bradford Star, 1902.)

Hilbert, Alfred G. “The Forbidden Trail,” article in The Crooked Lake Review, July 1991.)

Hirsch, Alison. “The Celebrated Madame Montour: Interpretess across Early American Frontiers,” article in Explorations in Early American Culture. (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historical Association, 2000.)

Irvin, George. The Art of Robert Griffing. His Journey into the Eastern Frontier. (Panama, N.Y.: Paramount Press, 2003.)

Kraft, Herbert C. The Lenape-Delaware Indian Heritage, 10,000 BC to AD 2000. (Stanhope, N.J.: Lenape Lifeways, 2001.)

Larson, Paul. Early Bethlehem and the Native-Americans. (Bethlehem, Pa.: Oaks Printing, 1987.)

Lottick, Sally Teller. Wyoming Valley’s Earliest Settlers. (Wilkes-Barre, Pa.: Wyoming Valley Historical and Geological Society, 1997.)

Mancall, Peter C. Valley of Opportunity: Economic Culture Along the Upper Susquehanna, 1700-1800. (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991.)

McHugh, Thomas F. “Moravian Mission to the American Indians: Early American Peace Corps,” article in Pennsylvania History, Vol. 33 (Mansfield, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historical Association, October 1966.)

Merrell, James H. Into the American Woods: Negotiators on the Pennsylvania Frontier. (New York: W.W. Norton, 1999.)

Merritt, Jane T. At the Crossroads: Indians and Empire of a Mid-Atlantic Frontier. (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.)

Moore, John L. Traders, Travelers & Tomahawks.True Tales about Indians, Outlaws,
Settlers & Soldiers on the Eastern Frontier.
(Northumberland, Pa.: John L. Moore, 1999.)

Moore, John L. Cannons, Cattle & Campfires: More True Tales about Indians, Outlaws, Settlers & Soldiers on the Eastern Frontier. (Northumberland, Pa.: John L. Moore, 2002.)

Moore, John L. Rivers, Raiders & Renegades. True Tales about Indians, Outlaws, Settlers &
Soldiers on the Eastern Frontier
. (Northumberland, Pa.: John L. Moore, 2003.)

Moore, John L. Pioneers, Prisoners & Peace Pipes. True Tales about Indians, Outlaws,
Settlers & Soldiers on the Eastern Frontier
. (Northumberland, Pa.: John L. Moore, 2006.)

Murray, Louise Welles. A History of Old Tioga Point and Early Athens, Pennsylvania. (Wilkes-Barre, Pa.: Raeder Press, 1907.)

Murray, Elsie. Te-a-o-ga: Annals of a Valley. (Athens, Pa.: Tioga Point Museum, 1939.)

Parker, Arthur C. Red Jacket, Seneca Chief. (Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.)

Pencak, William A. and Richter, Daniel K., editors. Friends & Enemies in Penn’s Woods: Indians, Colonists and the Racial Construction of Pennsylvania. (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004.)

Pickering, Octavius, and Upham, Charles W. The Life of Timothy Pickering, Volume 2. (New York: Little, Brown, 1873.)

Pierce, H.B., and Hurd, D. Hamilton. History of Tioga, Chemung, Tompkins, and Schuyler Counties, New York. (Philadelphia: Everts & Ensign, 1879.)

Post, Christian Frederick. The Second Journal of Christian Frederick Post. (London: J. Wilkie, 1759.)

Reichel, W. C. “Wyalusing and the Moravian Mission at Friedenshuetten,” article in Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society, Bethlehem, Pa., 1871.)

Richter, Daniel K. Facing East From Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.)

Richter, Daniel K. Native Americans’ Pennsylvania. (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historical Association, 2005.)

Ricky, Donald B., editor. Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Indians. (St. Clair Shores, Mich.: Somerset Publishers, 1998.)

Schutt, Amy C. Peoples of the River Valleys: The Odyssey of the Delaware Indians. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.)

Sipe, C. Hale. The Indian Chiefs of Pennsylvania. (Butler, Pa.: Ziegler Printing, 1927.)

Sipe, C. Hale. The Indian Wars of Pennsylvania. (Lewisburg, Pa.: Wennawoods Publishing, 1995.)

Sivertson, Barbara J. Turtles, Wolves, and Bears: A Mohawk Family History. (Berwyn Heights, Md.: Heritage Books, 1996.)

Stuart, William H. Stories of the Kanestio Valley. Dansville, N.Y.: F.A. Owen Publishing, 1935.)

Swatzler, David. A Friend Among the Senecas: The Quaker Mission to Cornplanter’s People. (Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 2000.)

Taylor, Alan. The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution. (New York: Vintage Books, 2006.)

Wallace, Anthony F.C. Teedyuscung: King of the Delawares, 1700-1763. (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1990.)

Wallace, Paul A.H. Indians in Pennsylvania. (Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1961, revised 2005 by William A. Hunter.)

Wallace, Paul A. “Queen Esther & Joseph Brant,” article in The Settler. (Towanda, Pa.: Bradford County Historical Society, September, 1977.)

Weslager, C.A. The Delaware Indians: A History. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1972.)

Witthoft, John. The American Indian as Hunter. (Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1999.)

Woodard, Colin. American Nations: A History of the Eleven Rival Regional Cultures of North America. (New York: Penguin Books, 2012)

ALSO CONSULTED

Pennsylvania Colonial Records, Vol. 7, Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. 3, and Minutes of the Provincial Council, Vol. 3, all at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

“Narrative of the Capture of Mrs. Whitaker,” letter at the David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, Pa.

Native American Exhibitions at the National Museum of the American Indian, New York, and at the University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia.

Selected Works by Jim Remsen

Nonfiction
The chronicle of a group of fugitive slaves and the world they encountered in the wary North. Despite serving bravely in the Civil War, their battle for respect was never-ending.
A comprehensive, immensely practical self-help book for intermarried families and those who love them.
Historical fiction
A tween girl visits a seemingly out-of-the-way town on a summer vacation and has close encounters with its amazing past. This saga blends history, suspense, and a coming-of-age journey.

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